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These tutorials demonstrate selected features in ASP.NET version 2.0, but they are compatible with later versions of ASP.NET as well. For the current documentation, see the ASP.NET portal on the MSDN Web site.



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ASP.NET Quickstart Tutorials


The ASP.NET TreeView control is a powerful server-control for rendering TreeView UI, as shown in the figure below. It supports a variety of programming models, from statically-defined trees, to dynamically constructed trees, to databound trees. The TreeView's rendering is fully customizable, allowing for a wide-range of look-and-feels for the control. The TreeView supports both postback-style events and simple hyperlink navigation, as well as a unique event handling model that allows data to be retrieved directly from a client without requiring a server postback. It also supports rendering on a variety of browsers, and can take advantage of up-level capabilities, such as client-script on later desktop browser versions.

The statically-defined tree is the simplest form of the TreeView, demonstrated below. Note that the persistence format for the TreeView intuitively resembles the hierarchical structure of the final rendered tree.
  <asp:TreeView ExpandDepth="1" runat="server">
      <asp:TreeNode Text="Employees">
        <asp:TreeNode Text="Bradley" Value="ID-1234" />
        <asp:TreeNode Text="Whitney" Value="ID-5678" />
        <asp:TreeNode Text="Barbara" Value="ID-9101" />
Each node in the Tree is represented by a name/value pair (not necessarily unique), defined by the Text and Value properties of TreeNode, respectively. The text of a node is rendered, whereas the value of a node is not rendered and is typically used as additional data for handling postback events. This example also uses the ExpandDepth property of TreeView to automatically expand the tree 1 level deep when it is first rendered.

In addition to Text/Value pairs, TreeNode exposes NavigateUrl and Target properties for defining a hyperlink to navigate and a window/frame target, respectively. TreeView itself also exposes a Target property, for the common case where it should be the same value for all TreeNodes. The hyperlink will be followed when the node's text is clicked, as demonstrated in the example below.

  <asp:TreeView runat="server">
      <asp:TreeNode Text="My Computer">
        <asp:TreeNode Text="Favorites">
          <asp:TreeNode Text="News">  
            <asp:TreeNode Text="MSN" NavigateUrl=""/>
            <asp:TreeNode Text="MSNBC News" NavigateUrl=""/>
The example below shows a simple statically-defined TreeView that uses NavigateUrl for navigation.

VB TreeView
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The ASP.NET TreeView is capable of many different appearances using flexible customization of images and styles, as well as properties of the control that specify custom UI options. The visual elements of a TreeView are labelled in the figure below.

The TreeView consists of three basic node types: root nodes, parent nodes, and leaf nodes. A root node is any node with child nodes that has a null Parent property in the TreeView's Nodes collection; it is a top-level parent node in the tree. A parent node is any node in the TreeView's Nodes collection that has child nodes underneath it in the hierarchy. A leaf node is any node in the TreeView's Nodes collection that has no child nodes; it is neither a root node nor a parent node.

The TreeView exposes custom TreeNodeStyle properties for each node type (RootNodeStyle, ParentNodeStyle, and LeafNodeStyle), each of which has an ImageUrl property used for defining an icon for the node type. These images are rendered to the left of the node text, as shown in the figure above. Each TreeNode may selectively override the default image for its node type using the ImageUrl property on the TreeNode object.

The TreeView also exposes CollapseImageUrl and ExpandImageUrl properties for the expanded and collapsed indicators of the TreeView, usually represented by plus and minus icons. Similarly, a NoExpandImageUrl property is provided for rendering next to nodes that have no children. If not specified, these properties default to built in resource images provided by the TreeView. The default images may be turned off using the TreeView ShowExpandCollapse boolean property.

VB TreeView Images
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The TreeNodeStyle properties for each node type (RootNodeStyle, ParentNodeStyle and LeafNodeStyle) are also used to customize fonts, colors, and other style information for nodes. The RootNodeStyle, ParentNodeStyle, and LeafNodeStyle style properties override any settings on the NodeStyle property, which applies to all node types. A node can also have a different style applied when it is selected, i.e. when TreeNode.Selected = true. When a node is selected, the SelectedNodeStyle overrides any corresponding unselected style properties for a node. Selection is discussed in a later topic below. Lastly, the HoverNodeStyle defines the properties to apply when a client mouse cursor hovers over the tree node (applies to script-capable clients only). Style properties are merged in the following order of precedence:
  1. NodeStyle
  2. RootNodeStyle, ParentNodeStyle, or LeafNodeStyle
  3. SelectedNodeStyle
  4. HoverNodeStyle
Because each tree node is ultimately rendered in a table, TreeNodeStyle inherits from the base Style class, and additionally defines three new properties:

NodeSpacingDefines the space, in pixels, between the node and the node above and below it in the rendered output.
VerticalPaddingDefines the space, in pixels, between the top and bottom of the node text and border around the text.
HorizontalPaddingDefines the space, in pixels, between the left and right of the node text and border around the text.
ChildNodesPaddingDefines the space, in pixels, between the last child node of an expanded parent node and the sibling node immediately following this node.

TreeView's NodeIndent property also defines the amount of right-indentation between each node's left-edge and its parent node's left-edge. The effect of these style properties on the node rendering is illustrated in the figure below.

The following example demonstrates the use of several TreeView style properties. Note that RootNodeStyle is merged with the settings for NodeStyle and HoverNodeStyle is merged with both RootNodeStyle and NodeStyle.

VB TreeView Styles
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TreeView Lines. The TreeView has the ability to render lines connecting tree nodes, using a series of pre-rendered images. These line images are generated by design-time programs such as Microsoft Visual Studio, which take the following parameters as input, rendering a real-time preview of the TreeView lines:
  • Line Style (dashed, dotted, or solid)
  • Line Width (in pixels)
  • Line Color
  • Line Image Width
  • Line Image Height
  • CollapseImageUrl
  • ExpandImageUrl
The line designer generates several images that can be tiled to connect tree nodes. The images are saved to a web-accessible location, for example ~/MyApp/Images/TreeViewLines, and this location is then specified as a relative url on the TreeView's LineImagesFolderUrl property. Note that the expanded and collapsed images supplied to the tree line designer are rendered in the line images next to parent and root nodes with child nodes.

VB TreeView Lines
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Skillful combinations of styles and images can create extensive variation in different TreeView renderings. Because many developers may not be artistically inclined, ASP.NET allows you to apply Skins to the TreeView control from a Theme applied to the Page. To set the skin for the TreeView, simply set the SkinID property to the name of the desired skin in the Theme. The following example demonstrates a variety of skins applied to the TreeView control:
  • Help
  • BulletedList
  • Arrows
  • Contacts
  • FAQ
  • MSDN
  • Inbox
  • Events
  • TOC
Note that it is also possible to create your own custom themes for the TreeView and other controls. For more information see the Applying Styles, Themes, and Skins section of this tutorial.

VB TreeView Themes
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The TreeView also exposes a LevelStyles collection property, which contains TreeNodeStyle objects corresponding to each depth in the tree. For example, the first style in the collection corresponds to TreeNodes at depth 0, the second style corresponds to nodes at depth 1, and so on. Using this collection it it possible to define several unique styles to differentiate levels in the tree.

VB TreeView Level Styles
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Another custom rendering feature of the TreeView is the ability to render checkboxes within each node (between the node text and image), shown in the figure below.

The TreeView ShowCheckBoxes property enables CheckBoxes for different tree node types (root, parent, leaf, all, or none). An individual TreeNode may override this default using its own TreeNode ShowCheckBox boolean property. The TreeNode Checked property is used to check or uncheck the node's checkbox, either declaratively or in code. The TreeView CheckedNodes collection may be used to enumerate all checked nodes in the TreeView, as demonstrated in the example below. The TreeView CheckedChanged event can also be handled, and will be fired whenever the checked state of a TreeNode's CheckBox changes (the tree node is passed in the EventArgs parameter for the event).

VB TreeView CheckBoxes
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In addition to navigation using NavigateUrl the TreeView supports postback-style selection when TreeNode objects have a Value property set. The TreeView SelectedValue property exposes the value of the currently selected TreeNode. The SelectedNode.ValuePath property exposes the values of all TreeNodes leading to the selected node, separated by PathSeparator character. The example below demonstrates these properties.

VB TreeView Selection
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TreeView exposes a variety of events you can use to execute custom code when the user interacts with the tree. For example, The TreeNodeExpanded and TreeNodeCollapsed events are raised when a TreeNode is expanded or collapsed. The SelectedNodeChanged event is raised when a TreeNode is selected interactively from the client.

VB TreeView Events
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TreeView supports populating nodes on-demand when a node is expanded from the client. This allows you to only send a subset of the total nodes to the client and then continue to retrieve additional data for expanded nodes as the user interacts with the TreeView, which can result in an overall performance gain for your page. To populate nodes on demand, set the PopulateOnDemand property of TreeNode for nodes without children that should be populated when the node is expanded. Then you handle the TreeNodePopulate event to write logic for populating the node. This event passes a reference to the node that was expanded in the event args. You can then programmatically populate the child nodes for this node, and they will be returned to the client rendering.

TreeView supports two modes for populating on-demand, configured by the PopulateNodesFromClient property. When set to true (the default), the TreeView executes client-side callbacks to retrieve the nodes from the server event, without posting back the entire page. This mode is only supported on browsers that support client callbacks, indicated by browser capabilities. When PopulateNodesFromClient is set to false, the TreeView submits a normal postback to raise the server event to populate nodes.

The following example demonstrates a TreeView populated on demand to show the file system for the application that contains this sample. The Value for each TreeNode contains the virtual path to each file or directory, so it does not render fully-qualified paths to the client browser (a security risk). The TreeNodePopulate event performs an HttpRequest.MapPath on the virtual path to obtain the full path on the server. It also verifies that the requested path corresponds to a file or directory under the current application root, to prevent spoofing of the path from the client. It is important to realize that callback arguments are not protected from tampering on the client, so you need appropriate logic in your TreeNodePopulate event handler to validate that the arguments contain expected values.

VB Populating TreeView On Demand
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This next example demonstrates using the TreeView PopulateOnDemand feature to programmatically create TreeNodes from a relational database. Note that the event handler must check the depth of the parent node that was expanded in order to determine the database query to execute to retrieve nodes.

VB Populating TreeView from a Database
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Although you can populate nodes both declaratively and programmatically from code, you can also data bind a TreeView control to a hierarchical data source control by setting the DataSourceID property. When bound to a data source, the TreeView automatically populates TreeNodes from the nodes in the data source. ASP.NET includes two hierarchical data source control in the box: the XmlDataSource control and SiteMapDataSource control. When bound to a hierarchical data source, the TreeView must map the properties of data nodes to the properties of TreeNode objects. When no such mapping exists, the TreeView simply renders the Name of each data node as the node Text. For XmlDataSource, this results in the TreeView rendering the structure and element names in the underlying XML data, as shown in the example below.

VB Binding TreeView to an XML File
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To give the TreeView a more meaningful rendering, you can specify individual data bindings for nodes in the tree. TreeNodeBinding objects may be added to the TreeView's Databindings collection for the purpose of defining how the fields of hierachical data items are mapped to TreeNode properties. There are two key properties of TreeNodeBinding that determine the set of hierarchical data items to which the binding applies. The DataMember property specifies the type of data item, or in the case of XML data, the element name for which a binding applies. The Depth property specifies the depth in the hierarchy at which the data binding should apply. You can set either DataMember or Depth, or you can set both of these properties. For example, to define data bindings for all Book elements in a given XML file, set DataMember to "Book". To define bindings for all nodes at depth 1, set the Depth property to 1. To define bindings for all Book nodes at depth 1, set both DataMember to "Book" and Depth to 1 on the TreeNodeBinding object.

Once you have set DataMember or Depth to match a given set of nodes, you can define additional properties of TreeNodeDataBinding to define how properties of the data item (or XML node attributes, in the case of XML data) map to the properties of the TreeNodes that the TreeView control renders. For example, the TextField property defines the name of property/attribute to use for the Text of the TreeNode. Similarly, the ValueField property defines the data item property/attribute to use for the TreeNode Value. The NavigateUrlField property defines the field/attribute to use for TreeNode's NavigateUrl, and so on. You can also specify static values for the TreeNode properties for a given data binding. For example, to specify that TreeNodes for Book elements have a "Book.gif" image, set the ImageUrl property on the TreeNodeBinding whose DataMember property is set to "Book".

The following example shows a TreeView bound to the same XML data as the preceding example, with DataBindings defined for specific elements in the XML hierarchy.

VB TreeView Data Bindings
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The XmlDataSource supports an XPath property you can use to filter the set of nodes exposed by the data source. In the example below, the XPath property is set to Bookstore/genre[@name='Business']/book, to filter the nodes of the data source to show only those book elements under the "Business" genre. Be careful to specify correct syntax for the XPath property; otherwise, the data source may expose no nodes (and the asssociated data-bound control will not render).

VB TreeView to an XPath Result
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Note that the TreeView hierarchy exactly matches the hierarchy of the source XML. Because of this, it is either common to construct XML specifically for binding to the TreeView or to use an XSL transformation to "re-shape" the data into an appropriate hierarchy for binding to the TreeView.

VB TreeView to an XSLT Transformation
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A hierarchical data source control like XmlDataSource associates a unique path to each node in its hierarchy, in order to serve requests from data-bound controls for nodes at a specific location. This enables features like TreeView's PopulateOnDemand feature, where nodes from a data source can be sent down to the client as each node is expanded, instead of sending down all nodes at once. It also enables you to use this path from page code to configure a data source to show nodes from a specific location. The path syntax is specific to the type of data represented, and cannot be constructed from code. However, you can access the data path for a node bound to TreeView using the TreeNode DataPath property. Because the XmlDataSource uses XPath expressions for it's data path syntax, these paths may be assigned to the XPath property of an XmlDataSource to filter the list of nodes. The example below demonstrates this technique to implement a master-details scenario using XmlDataSource. There are two XmlDataSource controls, one bound to the TreeView (master control), and one bound to a DataList (details control). When a TreeView node is clicked, the DataPath property is retrieved and assigned to the XmlDataSource control bound to the DataList, in order to display additional information for the specific node that was clicked.

We will build the master-details scenario is several steps. First, simply bind the TreeView control to an XmlDataSource that exposes data from an Events.xml file.

VB XML-based Event Log using TreeView
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Next, add Databindings to the TreeView to associate node properties to TreeNode properties, and set a SkinID to customize the style and images for the TreeView.

VB XML-based Event Log using TreeView (DataBindings)
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You can customize the mappings betweeen data nodes and TreeNode objects by handling the TreeNodeDataBound event. This event gives you a reference to the DataItem from the data source, that you can cast to an appropriate type to retrieve properties. In this case, the DataItem is an XmlNode object.

VB XML-based Event Log using TreeView (TreeNodeDataBound Event)
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Lastly, we finish the master-details scenario by adding a DataList to the page to show the details for the currently selected TreeNode. The DataList is bound to its own XmlDataSource, and in the TreeNodeSelected event handler, we obtain the DataPath property of the selected node in order to set the XPath property of the details data source.

VB XML-based Event Log using TreeView (Master-Details)
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Site navigation data is another form of hierarchical data in an ASP.NET application, as described in the Creating a Site Navigation Hierarchy section. In addition to supporting the Site Navigation API in ASP.NET for programmatic access to site map data, ASP.NET 2.0 also supports a SiteMapDataSource control for declarative data binding. When you bind a TreeView control to a SiteMapDataSource, the Text and Url properties of the site map can be bound to TreeNodes. Although you can specify a DataBinding collection to establish these bindings, this is not strictly necessary. The TreeView control automatically binds the Text and NavigateUrl properties of TreeNode to the related site map properties (this is achieved using the INavigateUIData interface on SiteMapNode). Another feature of TreeView when bound to a SiteMapDataSource is that it automatically sets the SelectedNode or SelectedItem property to the current node in the site map.

The example below shows a TreeView bound to a SiteMapDataSource control. Although this example shows the Databindings collection for demonstration purposes, this is not necessary when you are only binding to the Text and Url properties of the node.

VB Binding TreeView to SiteMap Data
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